Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
|9 Months Ended|
Sep. 30, 2019
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Summary of Significant Accounting Policies||
NOTE 3 - SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES
There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies as of and for the nine months ended September 30, 2019, as compared to the significant accounting policies described in the Company’s 2018 Annual Report, except for the recent adoption of the new lease accounting pronouncement as described below.
Use of Estimates
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash consists of amounts held in financial institutions that are immediately available to the Company. The funds are maintained at stable financial institutions, generally at amounts in excess of federally insured limits. Cash equivalents include money market funds and held-to-maturity securities with a maturity date of 90 days or less. As of September 30, 2019, cash and cash equivalents consisted of bank deposits, cash and investments in money market funds. The Company has not realized any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company is not exposed to significant credit risk due to the financial position of the depository institutions at which those deposits are held.
Investments in Marketable Securities
Investments in marketable securities are held in a custodial account at a financial institution and managed by the Company’s capital advisors based on the Company’s investment guidelines. All of the Company’s investments in marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale debt securities and are carried at fair value. Interest on these securities, as well as the amortization of discounts and premiums, is included in interest income in the statements of operations. The unrealized gains and losses on these securities are excluded from earnings and reported in other comprehensive income until realized, except when the declines in value are considered to be other than temporary. Other than temporary impairment losses related to credit losses are considered to be realized losses. When available-for-sale debt securities are sold, the cost of the securities is specifically identified and is used to determine the realized gain or loss. Securities classified as current assets have maturity dates of less than or equal to one year from the balance sheet date.
The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at inception. The Company’s material operating lease relates to a single office space. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, the Company estimates incremental secured borrowing rates corresponding to the maturities of the leases. As the Company has no outstanding debt or committed credit facilities, secured or otherwise, the Company estimates this rate based on prevailing financial market conditions, comparable company and credit analysis, and management judgment.
The Company’s leases typically contain rent escalations over the lease term. The Company recognize expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recognized when earned and reduce the Company’s right-of-use (“ROU”) asset related to the lease. These are amortized through the ROU asset as reductions of expense over the lease term. The Company’s lease agreement does not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. The Company has no lease agreements with lease and non-lease components.
Related to the adoption of Topic 842, the Company’s policy elections were as follows:
Other information related to the Company’s leases is provided below.
Future payments under non-cancelable extended operating leases having initial or remaining terms of one year or more are as follows for the remaining fiscal year and thereafter:
Equity-linked Financial Instruments
The Company classifies outstanding common stock warrants with down-round features as equity, if the instrument would otherwise be classified in equity absent the down-round feature. The Company will recognize the value of a down-round feature when it is triggered and the warrant’s strike price has been adjusted downward, as a deemed dividend and reduction of income available to common stockholders in computing basic earnings per share.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company determines basic loss per share and diluted loss per share in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings per Share.” Basic net loss per share was calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share was calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method or the two-class method, whichever is more dilutive. The potentially dilutive stock options issued under the 2015 Plan (described in Note 8), Series A, B and C Convertible Preferred Stock (described in Note 6) and warrants to purchase the Company’s common stock (described in Notes 6 and 7) were not considered in the computation of diluted net loss per share because they would be anti-dilutive.
Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. The Company is required to record all components of comprehensive income (loss) in the financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss), including foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains and losses on investments are reported, net of their related tax effect, to arrive at comprehensive income (loss). For the nine months ended September 30, 2019, comprehensive income consisted of unrealized gains on investments in available-for-sale debt securities. There were no unrealized gains (losses) on investments in available-for-sale debt securities and held-to-maturity debt securities for the nine months ended September 30, 2018.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, an amendment that modifies the measurement recognition of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments. The amendment updates the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The amendment also requires that credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities be recorded as an allowance through net income rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The guidance is effective for public business entities that are SEC filers. The amendments in ASU No. 2016-13 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other public business entities, the amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its financial statements.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”, an amendment to the accounting guidance on fair value measurements. The guidance modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the removal of disclosures of the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 and Level 2 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy for timing of transfers between levels, and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance also adds certain disclosure requirements related to Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its financial statements.
In June 2016, the FASB issued ASU 2016-13, Financial Instruments—Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments (ASU 2016-13) and also issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance: ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04, and ASU 2019-05 (collectively, “Topic 326”). Topic 326 requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. The effective date and transition methodology for the amendments in Topic 326 are the same as in ASU 2016-13. The Company does not expect the adoption of this guidance will have a material impact on its financial statements.
Other accounting standard updates effective after September 30, 2019 are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.
Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements
In February 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842). Under this guidance, an entity is required to recognize ROU assets and corresponding lease liabilities on its balance sheets and disclose key information about leasing arrangements. In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements, which provides for an alternative transition method by allowing companies to continue to use the legacy guidance in Topic 840, Leases, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption of the new leases standard and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption rather than the earliest period presented.
The Company elected the available package of practical expedients, but not the hindsight practical expedient, and implemented internal controls to enable the preparation of financial information on adoption as of January 1, 2019.
The standard had a material impact on the Company’s condensed balance sheets, but did not have an impact on its statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The most significant impact was the recognition of a ROU asset and lease liability for the Company’s sole operating lease—the Company had no finance leases. Adoption of the standard did not require the Company to restate previously reported results as it elected to apply a modified retrospective approach at the beginning of the period of adoption rather than at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-07, Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting, which expands the scope of Topic 718 Compensation—Stock Compensation, to include share-based payments issued to nonemployees for goods or services. Consequently, the accounting for share-based payments to nonemployees and employees will be substantially aligned. ASU No. 2018-07 supersedes Subtopic 505-50 Equity—Equity-Based Payments to Non-Employees. The amendments implemented by ASU No. 2018-07 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within that fiscal year. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than an entity’s adoption date of Topic 606. The Company adopted ASU 2018-07 on January 1, 2019 and it did not have a material effect on its results of operations, financial position or cash flows.
In August 2018, the SEC adopted final rules under SEC Release No. 33-10532, Disclosure Update and Simplification, amending certain SEC disclosure requirements that were redundant, duplicative, overlapping, outdated or superseded. In addition, the amendments expanded the disclosure requirements on the analysis of stockholders’ equity for interim financial statements. Under the amendments, an analysis of changes in each caption of stockholders’ equity presented in the balance sheets must be provided in a note or separate statement. The analysis must present a reconciliation of the beginning balance to the ending balance of each period for which a statement of comprehensive income is required to be filed. These final rules became effective on November 5, 2018, with issuers required to provide their analysis of stockholders’ equity in quarterly reports on Form 10-Q beginning with reports for the quarter ended March 31, 2019. The Company included the analysis of changes in stockholders’ equity in the interim period unaudited condensed financial statements for the quarter ended March 31, 2019, has included it in this Quarterly Report, and will continue to do so in the Company’s quarterly reports on Form 10-Q in the future. The Company adopted these SEC amendments on January 1, 2019 and it did not have a material impact on the Company’s financial position, results of operations, cash flows or stockholders’ equity.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef