Annual report pursuant to Section 13 and 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)

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Summary of Significant Accounting Policies (Policies)
12 Months Ended
Dec. 31, 2015
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Use of Estimates

Use of Estimates

 

The preparation of financial statements in accordance with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates and such differences may be material to the financial statements. The more significant estimates and assumptions by management include among others; the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets resulting from net operating losses and the valuation of options on the Company’s common stock.

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and Cash Equivalents

 

Cash consists of amounts held in a financial institution and consists of immediately available fund balances. The funds were maintained at a stable financial institution, generally at amounts in excess of federally insured limits, which represents a concentration of credit risk. The Company has not experienced any losses on deposits of cash and cash equivalents to date.

Deferred Offering Costs

Deferred Offering Costs

 

Deferred offering costs as of December 31, 2014 primarily consist of direct, incremental banking, legal and accounting fees related to the public offering of the Company’s common stock, and are classified within long term assets. The deferred offering costs were reclassified to additional paid-in capital upon the consummation of the offering on June 29, 2015.

Property and Equipment

Property and Equipment

 

Property and equipment are recorded at cost and depreciated over their estimated useful lives using the straight-line method (see Note 4). Upon retirement or sale, the cost of assets disposed of and the related accumulated depreciation are removed from the accounts and any resulting gain or loss is credited or charged to income. Maintenance and repairs are charged to expense as incurred while expenditures for refurbishments and improvements that significantly add to the productive capacity or extend the useful life of an asset are capitalized.

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

Impairment of Long-Lived Assets

 

The Company periodically assesses the impairment of long lived assets in accordance with Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 360, Property Plant and Equipment. When indicators of impairment are present, the Company evaluates the carrying value of these assets in relation to the operating performance of the business and future undiscounted cash flows expected to result from the use of these assets. No such impairments have been recognized during the years ended December 31, 2015 or 2014.

Accrued Expenses

Accrued Expenses

 

The Company incurs periodic expenses such as research and development, salaries, and professional fees. An accrual is necessary when expenses have been incurred by the Company prior to them being paid. When a vendor’s invoice is not received, the Company is required to estimate its accrued expense. This process involves reviewing quotations and contracts, identifying services that have been performed on the Company’s behalf and estimating the level of service performed and the associated cost incurred for the service when the Company has not yet been invoiced or otherwise been notified of the actual cost. The majority of the Company’s service providers invoice monthly in arrears for services performed or when contractual milestones are met. The Company estimates accrued expenses at each balance sheet date based on facts and circumstances known at that time. The Company periodically confirms the accuracy of its estimates with the service providers and makes adjustments if necessary.

Research and Development

Research and Development

 

The Company expenses the cost of research and development as incurred. Research and development expenses comprise costs incurred in performing research and development activities, including clinical trial costs, manufacturing costs for both clinical and pre-clinical materials as well as other contracted services, license fees, and other external costs. Nonrefundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities are expensed when the activity is performed or when the goods have been received, rather than when payment is made, in accordance with ASC Topic 730, Research and Development.

Patent Costs

Patent Costs

 

The Company has no historical data to support a probable future economic benefit for the arising patent applications, filing and prosecution costs. Therefore, patent costs are expensed as incurred. Should the Company experience a legal cost to defend a patent in the future, that cost would be capitalized only when it is part of the cost of retaining and obtaining the future economic benefit of the patent. Costs related to an unsuccessful outcome would be expensed.

Stock-based Compensation

Stock-based Compensation

 

Stock-based compensation cost for stock awards issued to employees, members of the Company’s board of directors and non-employees, is measured at the grant date based on the fair value of the award and is recognized as expense over the required service period, which is generally equal to the vesting period. Stock-based compensation is recognized only for those awards that are ultimately expected to vest. Common stock, stock options or warrants issued to non-employees, including consultants and members of the Company’s Scientific Advisory Board as consideration for goods or services received by the Company, are accounted for based on the fair value of the equity instruments issued unless the fair value consideration received can be more reliably measured. The fair value of stock options is determined using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model. The fair value of any options issued to non-employees is recorded as expense over the vesting period. See Note 9 for further information.

Fair Value Measurements

Fair Value Measurements

 

The Company follows authoritative accounting guidance, which among other things, defines fair value, establishes a consistent framework for measuring fair value and expands disclosure for each major asset and liability category measured at fair value on either a recurring or nonrecurring basis. Fair value is an exit price, representing the amount that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants. As such, fair value is a market-based measurement that should be determined based on assumptions that market participants would use in pricing an asset or liability.

 

As a basis for considering such assumptions, a three-tier fair value hierarchy has been established, which prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value as follows:

 

  Level 1: Observable inputs such as quoted prices (unadjusted) in active markets for identical assets or liabilities;
     
  Level 2: InpInputs other than quoted prices that are observable for the asset or liability, either directly or indirectly. These include quoted prices for similar assets or liabilities in active markets and quoted prices for identical or similar assets or liabilities in markets that are not active.
     
  Level 3: Unobservable inputs that reflect the reporting entity’s own assumptions.

 

As of December 31, 2015 and 2014, the carrying amounts of cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses are generally considered to be representative of their fair value because of the short term nature of these instruments. No transfers between levels have occurred during the periods presented.

Accounting for Income Taxes

Accounting for Income Taxes

 

Deferred tax assets and liabilities are recognized for the expected future consequences of events that have been reflected in the financial statements. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are determined based on the differences between the book and tax basis of assets and liabilities and operating loss carryforwards, using tax rates expected to be in effect for the years in which the differences are expected to reverse. Such differences arise primarily from stock-based compensation and net operating loss carryforwards. The Company records a valuation allowance to reduce deferred income tax assets when it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax asset will not be realized. Prior to September 15, 2008, the Company was a limited liability company and the Company’s tax losses and credits generally flowed directly to the members.

Net Loss Per Share

Net Loss Per Share

 

Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method or the two-class method, whichever is more dilutive. The potentially dilutive stock options issued under the 2015 Equity Incentive Plan (described in Note 9) and warrants on the Company’s common stock (described in Note 8) are not considered in the computation of diluted net loss per share because they would be anti-dilutive.

 

All common share amounts and per share amounts have been adjusted to reflect a 1-for-7.15 reverse stock split of the Company’s common stock effected in June 2015.

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

Comprehensive Income (Loss)

 

Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. The Company is required to record all components of comprehensive loss in the financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Net income (loss) and other comprehensive loss, including foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains and losses on investments are reported, net of their related tax effect, to arrive at a comprehensive loss. For the years ended December 31, 2015 and 2014, comprehensive loss was equal to the net loss.

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

Recent Accounting Pronouncements

 

On November 20, 2015, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2015-17, Balance Sheet Classification of Deferred Taxes. ASU 2015-17 simplifies the presentation of deferred income taxes and requires that deferred tax assets and liabilities, as well as any related valuation allowance, be classified as noncurrent in a classified statement of financial position. The adoption of ASU 2015-17 is not expected to impact the Company’s financial statements as the Company has no net deferred income taxes presented on its balance sheets.

 

In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements — Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40) — Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which provides guidance regarding management’s responsibility to assess whether substantial doubt exists regarding the ability to continue as a going concern and requires related footnote disclosures. In connection with preparing financial statements for each annual and interim reporting period, management should evaluate whether there are conditions or events, considered in the aggregate, that raise substantial doubt about the Company’s ability to continue as a going concern within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued (or within one year after the date that the financial statements are available to be issued when applicable). This ASU is effective for the annual period ending after December 15, 2016, and for annual periods and interim periods thereafter. Management is currently evaluating the new guidance and has not determined the impact this standard may have on the Company’s financial statements.

 

Other accounting standards updates effective after December 31, 2015, are not expected to have a material effect on the Company’s financial position, annual results of operations and/or cash flows.