Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates
|9 Months Ended|
Dec. 31, 2020
|Organization, Consolidation and Presentation of Financial Statements [Abstract]|
|Organization and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies and Estimates||
NOTE 1 — ORGANIZATION AND SUMMARY OF SIGNIFICANT ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
Qualigen, Inc., now a subsidiary of Qualigen Therapeutics, Inc., was incorporated in Minnesota in 1996 to design, develop, manufacture and sell point-of-care quantitative immunoassay diagnostic products for use in physician offices and other point-of-care settings worldwide, and was reincorporated in Delaware in 1999. Qualigen Therapeutics, Inc. (the “Company”) operates in one business segment. In May 2020, Qualigen, Inc. completed a reverse recapitalization transaction with Ritter Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (“Ritter”) and Ritter was renamed Qualigen Therapeutics, Inc., recognized as a reverse recapitalization. All shares of Qualigen, Inc.’s capital stock were exchanged for Qualigen Therapeutics, Inc.’s capital stock in the merger. Ritter/Qualigen Therapeutics common stock, which was previously traded on the Nasdaq Capital Market under the ticker symbol “RTTR,” commenced trading on the Nasdaq Capital Market, on a post-reverse-stock-split adjusted basis, under the trading symbol “QLGN” on May 26, 2020.
Qualigen, Inc. was determined to be the accounting acquirer in a reverse recapitalization based upon the terms of the merger and other factors. All references to financial figures of the Company presented in the accompanying consolidated financial statements and in these Notes through May 22, 2020 are to those of Qualigen, Inc. All references to financial figures after May 22, 2020 are to those of Qualigen Therapeutics, Inc. and Qualigen, Inc.
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements of the Company have been prepared in conformity with accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America (“U.S. GAAP”), Regulation S-X and rules and regulations of the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).
Principles of Consolidation
The accompanying consolidated financial statements include the accounts of the Company and its wholly owned subsidiary. All intercompany balances and transactions have been eliminated in consolidation. Any reference in these notes to applicable guidance is meant to refer to U.S. GAAP. The Company views its operations and manages its business in one operating segment. All long-lived assets of the Company reside in the US.
Management uses estimates and assumptions in preparing its consolidated financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP. Those estimates and assumptions affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities, the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities, and the reported revenues and expenses. The most significant estimates relate to the estimated fair value of warrant liabilities, stock-based compensation, write-off of patents and licenses, amortization and depreciation, inventory reserves, allowances for doubtful accounts and returns, and warranty costs. Actual results could vary from the estimates that were used.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments purchased with an initial maturity of 90 days or less and money market funds to be cash equivalents.
The Company maintains its cash and cash equivalents in bank deposits which at times may exceed federally insured limits. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and believes it is not exposed to any significant credit risks on cash and cash equivalents.
Inventory is recorded at the lower of cost or net realizable value. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out method. The Company reviews the components of its inventory on a periodic basis for excess or obsolete inventory, and records specific reserves for identified items.
The Company assesses potential impairments to its long-lived assets when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances indicate that assets may not be recoverable. An impairment loss would be recognized when the sum of the expected future undiscounted cash flows is less than the carrying amount of the assets. The amount of impairment loss, if any, will generally be measured as the difference between the net book value of the assets and their estimated fair values. During the nine months ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized $1.4 million of such impairment losses on the construction-in-progress on a FastPack pouch filling machine project. During the year ended March 31, 2020, no such impairment losses were recorded.
Accounts Receivable, Net
The Company grants credit to domestic physicians, clinics, and distributors. The Company performs ongoing credit evaluations of its customers and generally requires no collateral. Customers can purchase certain products through a financing agreement that the Company has with an outside leasing company. Under the agreement, the leasing company evaluates the credit worthiness of the customer. Upon acceptance of the product by the customer, the leasing company remits payment to the Company at a discount. This financing arrangement is without recourse to the Company.
The Company provides an allowance for doubtful accounts and returns equal to the estimated uncollectible amounts or expected returns. The Company’s estimates are based on historical collections and returns and a review of the current status of trade accounts receivable.
Accounts receivable is comprised of the following at:
Research and Development
The Company expenses research and development costs as incurred including therapeutics license costs.
Shipping and Handling Costs
The Company includes shipping and handling fees billed to customers in net sales. Shipping and handling costs associated with inbound and outbound freight are generally recorded in cost of sales; such shipping and handling costs totaled approximately $84,000 and $115,000, respectively, for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020. Other shipping and handling costs included in general and administrative, research and development, and sales and marketing expenses totaled approximately $9,000 and $4,000 for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020, respectively.
Revenue from Contracts with Customers
Effective April 1, 2020, the Company adopted Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) Topic 606 (“ASC 606”), Revenue from Contracts with Customers, using the modified retrospective approach. The adoption of ASC 606 did not have a material impact on the measurement or on the recognition of revenue of contracts for which all revenue had not been recognized as of April 1, 2020. Therefore, no cumulative adjustment has been made to the opening balance of accumulated deficit at April 1, 2020. The comparative information has not been restated and continues to be reported under the accounting standards in effect for the periods presented.
The core principle of the new revenue standard is that a company should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of promised goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the company expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. The following five steps are applied to achieve that core principle:
Step 1: Identify the contract with the customer
Step 2: Identify the performance obligations in the contract
Step 3: Determine the transaction price
Step 4: Allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract
Step 5: Recognize revenue when the company satisfies a performance obligation
The Company generates revenue from selling FastPack System analyzers, accessories and disposable products used with the FastPack System. Disposable products include reagent packs which are diagnostic tests for Total PSA, testosterone, thyroid disorders, pregnancy, and Vitamin D.
The Company provides disposable products and equipment in exchange for consideration, which occurs when a customer submits a purchase order and the Company provides disposable products and equipment at the agreed upon prices in the invoice. Generally, customers purchase disposable products using separate purchase orders after the equipment (analyzer) has been provided to the customer. The initial delivery of the equipment and reagent packs represents a single performance obligation and is completed upon receipt by the customer. The delivery of each subsequent individual reagent pack represents a separate performance obligation because the reagent packs are standardized, are not interrelated in any way, and the customer can benefit from each reagent pack without any other product. There are no significant discounts, rebates, returns or other forms of variable consideration. Customers are generally required to pay within 30 days.
The performance obligation arising from the delivery of the equipment is satisfied upon the delivery of the equipment to the customer. The disposable products are shipped Free on Board (“FOB”) shipping point. For disposable products that are shipped FOB shipping point, the customer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership and legal title to the assets when the disposable products leave the Company’s shipping facilities, thus the customer obtains control and revenue is recognized at that point in time.
The Company has elected the practical expedient and accounting policy election to account for the shipping and handling as activities to fulfil the promise to transfer the disposable products and not as a separate performance obligation.
The Company’s contracts with customers generally have an expected duration of one year or less, and therefore the Company has elected the practical expedient in ASC 606 to not disclose information about its remaining performance obligations. Any incremental costs to obtain contracts are recorded as selling, general and administrative expense as incurred due to the short duration of the Company’s contracts.
The timing of the Company’s revenue recognition may differ from the timing of payment by the Company’s customers. The Company records a receivable when revenue is recognized prior to payment and there is an unconditional right to payment. Alternatively, when payment precedes the provision of the related services, the Company records deferred revenue until the performance obligations are satisfied.
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company accounted for its revenue arrangements under ASC 605, Revenue Recognition (“ASC 605”). Revenue arrangements with multiple deliverables were evaluated for proper accounting treatment. In these arrangements, the Company recorded revenue as separate units of accounting if the delivered items have value to the customer on a stand-alone basis, if the arrangement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered items, and if delivery or performance of the undelivered items is considered probable and substantially within the Company’s control.
Revenues from product sales which included both the Company’s proprietary diagnostic equipment (“analyzer”) and various immunoassay products (“reagents”) were generally recognized upon shipment, as no significant continuing performance obligations remained post shipment. Cash payments received in advance were classified as deferred revenue and recorded as a liability. The Company was generally not contractually obligated to accept returns, except for defective products. Revenue was recorded net of an allowance for estimated returns.
Multiple element arrangements included contracts that combined both the Company’s analyzer and a customer’s future reagent purchases under a single contract. In some sales contracts, the Company provided analyzers at no charge to customers. Title to the analyzer was maintained by the Company and the analyzer was returned by the customer to the Company at the end of the purchase agreement.
During the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020, product sales are stated net of an allowance for estimated returns of approximately $1,000 and $19,000, respectively.
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, payments received in advance from customers pursuant to certain collaborative research license agreements, deposits against future product sales, multiple element arrangements and extended warranties are recorded as a current or non-current deferred revenue liability based on the time from the balance sheet date to the future date of revenue recognition.
Research and Licenses
Prior to the adoption of ASC 606, the Company recognized research revenue over the term of various agreements, as negotiated contracted amounts were earned or reimbursable costs were incurred related to those agreements. Negotiated contracted amounts were earned in relative proportion to the performance required under the applicable contracts. Nonrefundable license fees were recognized over the related performance period or at the time that the Company had satisfied all performance obligations. Any amounts received prior to satisfying these revenue recognition criteria were recorded as deferred revenue.
During the nine months ended December 31, 2020, the Company recognized no collaborative research revenue, and during the year ended March 31, 2020 the Company recognized $85,000 in collaborative research revenue.
Effective April 1, 2020, the Company adopted Accounting Standard Update (“ASU”) No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements (“Topic 842”). The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at inception. The Company’s material operating lease consists of a single office/manufacturing/warehouse/laboratory space. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, the Company used the incremental secured borrowing rate for an existing secured loan corresponding to the maturities of the leases.
The Company’s leases typically contain rent escalations over the lease term. The Company recognizes expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recognized when earned and reduce the Company’s right-of-use (“ROU”) asset related to the lease. These are amortized through the ROU asset as reductions of expense over the lease term. The Company’s office/manufacturing/warehouse/laboratory lease agreement does not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. The Company has no lease agreements with lease and non-lease components.
Related to the adoption of Topic 842, the Company’s policy elections were as follows:
Property and Equipment, Net
Property and equipment are stated at cost and are presented net of accumulated depreciation. Depreciation is provided for on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets as follows:
Leasehold improvements are amortized on a straight-line basis over the shorter of the lease term or their estimated useful lives. The Company occasionally designs and builds its own machinery. The costs of these projects, which includes the cost of construction and other direct costs attributable to the construction, are capitalized as construction in progress. No provision for depreciation is made on construction in progress until the relevant assets are completed and placed in service.
The Company’s policy is to evaluate the remaining lives and recoverability of long-term assets on at least an annual basis or when conditions are present that indicate impairment.
Intangible Assets, Net
Intangibles consist of patent-related costs and costs for license agreements. Management reviews the carrying value of intangible assets that are being amortized on an annual basis or sooner when there is evidence that events or changes in circumstances may indicate that impairment exists. The Company considers relevant cash flow and profitability information, including estimated future operating results, trends and other available information, in assessing whether the carrying value of intangible assets being amortized can be recovered.
If the Company determines that the carrying value of intangible assets will not be recovered from the undiscounted future cash flows expected to result from the use and eventual disposition of the underlying assets, the Company considers the carrying value of such intangible assets as impaired and reduces them by a charge to operations in the amount of the impairment.
Costs related to acquiring patents and licenses are capitalized and amortized over their estimated useful lives, which is generally 5 to 17 years, using the straight-line method. Amortization of patents and licenses commences once final approval of the patent has been obtained. Patent and licenses costs are charged to operations if it is determined that the patent will not be obtained.
The carrying value of the patents of approximately $169,000 and $422,000 at December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020, respectively, are stated net of accumulated amortization of approximately $303,000 and $293,000, respectively. Amortization of patents charged to operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020 were approximately $10,000 and $13,000, respectively. Total future estimated amortization of patent costs for the five succeeding years is approximately $14,000 for the year ending December 31, 2021, approximately $15,000 for each of the years ending December 31, 2022 through 2023, approximately $14,000 for year 2024, approximately $11,000 for year 2025 and approximately $100,000 thereafter.
The carrying value of the licenses of approximately $19,000 and $149,000 at December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020 are stated net of accumulated amortization of approximately $400,000 and $395,000, respectively. Amortization of licenses charged to operations for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020 was approximately $5,000, and $7,000, respectively. Total future estimated amortization of license costs for the five succeeding years is approximately $4,000 for each of the years ending December 31, 2021 through 2025.
Derivative Financial Instruments and Warrant Liabilities
The Company does not use derivative instruments to hedge exposures to cash flow, market, or foreign currency risks. The Company evaluates all of its financial instruments, including issued stock purchase warrants, to determine if such instruments are derivatives or contain features that qualify as embedded derivatives. For derivative financial instruments that are accounted for as liabilities, the derivative instrument is initially recorded at its fair value and is then re-valued at each reporting date, with changes in the fair value reported in the Consolidated Statements of Operations. Depending on the features of the derivative financial instrument, the Company uses either the Black-Scholes option-pricing model or a Monte-Carlo simulation to value the derivative instruments at inception and subsequent valuation dates. The classification of derivative instruments, including whether such instruments should be recorded as liabilities or as equity, is re-assessed at the end of each reporting period (See Note 8).
Fair value measurements The Company determines the fair value measurements of applicable assets and liabilities based on a three-tier fair value hierarchy established by accounting guidance and prioritizes the inputs used in measuring fair value. The Company discloses and recognizes the fair value of its assets and liabilities using a hierarchy that prioritizes the inputs to valuation techniques used to measure fair value. The hierarchy gives the highest priority to valuations based upon unadjusted quoted prices in active markets for identical assets or liabilities (Level 1 measurements) and the lowest priority to valuations based upon unobservable inputs that are significant to the valuation (Level 3 measurements). The guidance establishes three levels of the fair value hierarchy as follows:
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
Cash and cash equivalents, accounts receivable, accounts payable, accrued liabilities, and debt are carried at cost, which management believes approximates fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments.
Stock-based compensation cost for equity awards granted to employees and non-employees is measured at the grant date based on the calculated fair value of the award using the Black-Scholes option-pricing model, and is recognized as an expense, under the straight-line method, over the requisite service period (generally the vesting period of the equity grant). If the Company determines that other methods are more reasonable, or other methods for calculating these assumptions are prescribed by regulators, the fair value calculated for the Company’s stock options could change significantly. Higher volatility and longer expected lives would result in an increase to stock-based compensation expense to employees and non-employees determined at the date of grant.
Deferred income taxes are recognized for temporary differences in the basis of assets and liabilities for financial statement and income tax reporting that arise due to net operating loss carry forwards, research and development credit carry forwards and from using different methods and periods to calculate depreciation and amortization, allowance for doubtful accounts, accrued vacation, research and development expenses, and state taxes. A provision has been made for income taxes due on taxable income and for the deferred taxes on the temporary differences. The components of the deferred tax asset and liability are individually classified as current and noncurrent based on their characteristics.
Deferred tax assets are reduced by a valuation allowance when, in the opinion of management, it is more likely than not that some portion or all of the deferred tax assets will not be realized. Deferred tax assets and liabilities are adjusted for the effects of changes in tax laws and rates on the date of enactment. Realization of the deferred income tax asset is dependent on generating sufficient taxable income in future years.
Sales and Excise Taxes
Sales and other taxes collected from customers and subsequently remitted to government authorities are recorded as accounts receivable with corresponding tax payable. These balances are removed from the balance sheet as cash is collected from customers and remitted to the tax authority.
The Company’s warranty policy generally provides for one year of coverage against defects and nonperformance within published specifications for sold analyzers and for the term of the contract for equipment held for lease. The Company accrues for estimated warranty costs in the period in which the revenue is recognized based on historical data and the Company’s best estimates of analyzer failure rates and costs to repair.
Accrued warranty liabilities were approximately $25,000 and $30,000, respectively, at December 31, 2020 and March 31, 2020 and are included in accrued expenses and other current liabilities on the balance sheets. Warranty costs were approximately $54,000 and $57,000 for the nine months ended December 31, 2020 and year ended March 31, 2020, respectively, and are included in cost of product sales in the statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued ASU No. 2016-13, Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, which supersedes current guidance by requiring recognition of credit losses when it is probable that a loss has been incurred. The new standard requires the establishment of an allowance for estimated credit losses on financial assets including trade and other receivables at each reporting date. The new standard will result in earlier recognition of allowances for losses on trade and other receivables and other contractual rights to receive cash. In November 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-10, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326), Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815) and Leases (Topic 842), which extends the effective date of Topic 326 for certain companies until fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2022. The new standard will be effective for the Company in the first quarter of fiscal year beginning January 1, 2023, and early adoption is permitted. The Company has not completed its review of the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements. However, based on the Company’s history of immaterial credit losses from trade receivables, management does not expect that the adoption of this standard will have a material effect on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In August 2020, the FASB issued ASU No. 2020-06, “Debt—Debt with Conversion and Other Options (Subtopic 470-20) and Derivatives and Hedging—Contracts in Entity’s Own Equity (Subtopic 815-40): Accounting for Convertible Instruments and Contracts in an Entity’s Own Equity” (“ASU 2020-06”), which simplifies accounting for convertible instruments by removing major separation models required under current U.S. GAAP. ASU 2020-06 removes certain settlement conditions that are required for equity contracts to qualify for the derivative scope exception and it also simplifies the diluted earnings per share calculation in certain areas. ASU 2020-06 is effective for the Company for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2023, including interim periods within those fiscal years. Early adoption is permitted, but no earlier than fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020 and adoption must be as of the beginning of the Company’s annual fiscal year. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of this standard on its consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606) (“Topic 606”). The guidance in Topic 606 provides that an entity should recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services provided and establishes the following steps to be applied by an entity: (1) identify the contract with a customer; (2) identify the performance obligations in the contract; (3) determine the transaction price; (4) allocate the transaction price to the performance obligations in the contract; and (5) recognize revenue when (or as) the entity satisfies the performance obligation. Topic 606 will be effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019 for the Company, based on the issuance of ASU 2020-05, which provided deferral of the effective date for an additional one year in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. The Company adopted the new revenue standard as of April 1, 2020 using the modified retrospective approach. The adoption of ASU 2014-09/Topic 606 did not have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
In July 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-11, Leases (Topic 842) Targeted Improvements (“Topic 842”), which provides for an alternative transition method by allowing companies to continue to use the legacy guidance in Topic 840, Leases, including its disclosure requirements, in the comparative periods presented in the year of adoption of the new leases standard and recognize a cumulative-effect adjustment to the opening balance of retained earnings in the period of adoption rather than the earliest period presented. The Company adopted the standard as of April 1, 2020 and the most significant impact was the recognition of a ROU asset and lease liability for the Company’s sole operating lease—the Company had no finance leases. Adoption of the Topic 842 did not require the Company to restate previously reported results as it elected to apply a modified retrospective approach at the beginning of the period of adoption rather than at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented.
In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement,” an amendment to the accounting guidance on fair value measurements. The guidance modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the removal of disclosures of the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy for timing of transfers between levels, and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance also adds certain disclosure requirements related to Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted ASU No. 2018-13 on April 1, 2020 and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its financial statements.
Other accounting standard updates are either not applicable to the Company or are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the organization, consolidation and basis of presentation of financial statements disclosure, and significant accounting policies of the reporting entity. May be provided in more than one note to the financial statements, as long as users are provided with an understanding of (1) the significant judgments and assumptions made by an enterprise in determining whether it must consolidate a VIE and/or disclose information about its involvement with a VIE, (2) the nature of restrictions on a consolidated VIE's assets reported by an enterprise in its statement of financial position, including the carrying amounts of such assets, (3) the nature of, and changes in, the risks associated with an enterprise's involvement with the VIE, and (4) how an enterprise's involvement with the VIE affects the enterprise's financial position, financial performance, and cash flows. Describes procedure if disclosures are provided in more than one note to the financial statements.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef