Quarterly report pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d)

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies

Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
3 Months Ended
Mar. 31, 2020
Accounting Policies [Abstract]  
Summary of Significant Accounting Policies



There have been no material changes in the Company’s significant accounting policies as of and for the three months ended March 31, 2020, as compared with the significant accounting policies described in the Company’s 2019 Annual Report.


Use of Estimates


The preparation of financial statements in conformity with GAAP requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities as of the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of revenues and expenses during the reporting period. Actual results could differ from those estimates.


Cash and Cash Equivalents


Cash consists of amounts held in financial institutions that are immediately available to the Company. The funds are maintained at stable financial institutions, generally at amounts in excess of federally insured limits. Cash equivalents include money market funds and held-to-maturity securities with a maturity date of 90 days or less. As of March 31, 2020, cash and cash equivalents consisted of bank deposits, cash and investments in money market funds.


Investments in Marketable Securities


Investments in marketable securities are held in a custodial account at a financial institution and managed by the Company’s capital advisors based on the Company’s investment guidelines. All of the Company’s investments in marketable securities are classified as available-for-sale debt securities and are carried at fair value. Interest on these securities, as well as the amortization of discounts and premiums, is included in interest income in the statements of operations and comprehensive loss. The unrealized gains and losses on these securities are excluded from earnings and reported in other comprehensive income until realized, except when it considers declines in value to be other than temporary. Other than temporary impairment losses related to credit losses are considered to be realized losses. When available-for-sale debt securities are sold, the cost of the securities is specifically identified and is used to determine the realized gain or loss. Securities classified as current assets have maturity dates of less than or equal to one year from the balance sheet date.


Operating Leases


The Company determines if a contract contains a lease at inception. The Company’s material operating lease relates to a single office space. Operating lease assets and liabilities are recognized at the lease commencement date. Operating lease liabilities represent the present value of lease payments not yet paid. Operating lease assets represent the Company’s right to use an underlying asset and are based upon the operating lease liabilities adjusted for prepayments or accrued lease payments, initial direct costs, lease incentives, and impairment of operating lease assets. To determine the present value of lease payments not yet paid, the Company estimates incremental secured borrowing rates corresponding to the maturities of the leases. As the Company has no outstanding debt or committed credit facilities, secured or otherwise, the Company estimates this rate based on prevailing financial market conditions, comparable company and credit analysis, and management judgment.


The Company’s leases typically contain rent escalations over the lease term. The Company recognize expense for these leases on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Additionally, tenant incentives used to fund leasehold improvements are recognized when earned and reduce the Company’s right-of-use (“ROU”) asset related to the lease. These are amortized through the ROU asset as reductions of expense over the lease term. The Company’s lease agreement does not contain any material residual value guarantees or material restrictive covenants. The Company has no lease agreements with lease and non-lease components.


Related to the adoption of Topic 842, the Company’s policy elections were as follows:


Separation of lease and non-lease components   While the Company does not currently have any lease agreement with lease and non-lease components, the Company elected this expedient to account for lease and non-lease components as separate components.
Short-term policy   The Company has elected the short-term lease recognition exemption for all applicable classes of underlying assets. Short-term disclosures include only those leases with a term greater than one month and 12 months or less, and expense is recognized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. Leases with an initial term of 12 months or less, that do not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the Company is reasonably certain to exercise, are not recorded on the balance sheets.


Equity-linked Financial Instruments


The Company classifies outstanding common stock warrants with down-round features as equity, if the instrument would otherwise be classified in equity absent the down-round feature. The Company will recognize the value of a down-round feature when it is triggered and the warrant’s strike price has been adjusted downward, as a deemed dividend and reduction of income available to common stockholders in computing basic earnings per share.


Net Loss Per Share


The Company determines basic loss per share and diluted loss per share in accordance with the provisions of Accounting Standards Codification (“ASC”) 260, “Earnings per Share.” Basic net loss per share was calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted net loss per share was calculated by dividing net loss by the weighted-average common shares outstanding during the period using the treasury stock method or the two-class method, whichever is more dilutive. The potentially dilutive stock options issued under the 2015 Plan (described in Note 8), Series A, B and C Convertible Preferred Stock (described in Note 6) and warrants to purchase the Company’s common stock (described in Notes 6 and 7) were not considered in the computation of diluted net loss per share because they would be anti-dilutive.


Comprehensive Income (Loss)


Comprehensive income (loss) is defined as the change in equity during a period from transactions and other events and circumstances from non-owner sources. The Company is required to record all components of comprehensive income (loss) in the financial statements in the period in which they are recognized. Net income (loss) and other comprehensive income (loss), including foreign currency translation adjustments and unrealized gains and losses on investments are reported, net of their related tax effect, to arrive at comprehensive income (loss). There were no investments in available-for-sale debt securities and held-to-maturity debt securities for the three months ended March 31, 2020. For the three months ended March 31, 2019, comprehensive income consisted of unrealized gains on investments in available-for-sale debt securities.


Recent Accounting Pronouncements


In December 2019, the FASB issued ASU No. 2019-12, “Income Taxes (Topic 740): Simplifying the Accounting for Income Taxes,” which is intended to simplify various aspects related to accounting for income taxes. The ASU 2019-12 removes certain exceptions to the general principles in Topic 740 and also clarifies and amends existing guidance to improve consistent application. The ASU 2019-12 is effective for the Company beginning after December 15, 2021. The Company is evaluating the impact of the adoption of ASU 2019-12 on its financial statements, but does not expect such adoption to have a material impact.


Other accounting standard updates effective after March 31, 2020 are not expected to have a material impact on the Company’s financial statements.


Recently Adopted Accounting Pronouncements


In June 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2016-13, Financial Instruments – Credit Losses (Topic 326): Measurement of Credit Losses on Financial Instruments, an amendment that modifies the measurement recognition of credit losses for most financial assets and certain other instruments. The amendment updates the guidance for measuring and recording credit losses on financial assets measured at amortized cost by replacing the “incurred loss” model with an “expected loss” model. Accordingly, these financial assets will be presented at the net amount expected to be collected. The amendment also requires that credit losses related to available-for-sale debt securities be recorded as an allowance through net income rather than reducing the carrying amount under the current, other-than-temporary-impairment model. The FASB also issued subsequent amendments to the initial guidance: ASU 2018-19, ASU 2019-04, and ASU 2019-05 (collectively, “Topic 326”). Topic 326 requires measurement and recognition of expected credit losses for financial assets held. The effective date and transition methodology for the amendments in Topic 326 are the same as in ASU 2016-13. The guidance is effective for public business entities that are SEC filers. The amendments in ASU No. 2016-13 are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods within those fiscal years. For all other public business entities, the amendments in this ASU are effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020, including interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020 and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its financial statements.


In August 2018, the FASB issued ASU No. 2018-13, “Fair Value Measurement (Topic 820): Disclosure Framework — Changes to the Disclosure Requirements for Fair Value Measurement”, an amendment to the accounting guidance on fair value measurements. The guidance modifies the disclosure requirements on fair value measurements, including the removal of disclosures of the amount of and reasons for transfers between Level 1 of the fair value hierarchy, the policy for timing of transfers between levels, and the valuation processes for Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance also adds certain disclosure requirements related to Level 3 fair value measurements. The guidance is effective for fiscal years, and interim periods within those fiscal years, beginning after December 15, 2019. The Company adopted ASU 2016-13 on January 1, 2020 and the adoption of this guidance did not have a material impact on its financial statements.